Changes in EEG oscillatory patterns due to acute stress caused by orthodontic correction
Institute of Physics, Saratov State University, 410012, Saratov, Russia
2 Center for Coordination of Fundamental Scientific Activities, National Medical Research Center for Therapy and Preventive Medicine, 101990, Moscow, Russia
3 Institute of Cardiological Research, Saratov State Medical University, 410005, Saratov, Russia
4 Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Saratov State Medical University, 410005, Saratov, Russia
5 Department of Neurology named after K. N. Tretyakov, Saratov State Medical University, 410005, Saratov, Russia
6 Department of General Practice Dentistry, Therapeutic Dentistry and Pediatric Dentistry, Penza Institute for Postgraduate Medical Education, 440060, Penza, Russia
7 Medical Institute, Russian State Social University, 129226, Moscow, Russia
Accepted: 24 November 2023
Published online: 18 December 2023
The manuscript presents a pilot study of the impact of orthodontic intervention on the brain electrical activity. The orthodontic treatment is a powerful factor of both physiological influence on the jaw system and the surrounding tissues of the head and stress influence. All practically healthy subjects of the same age category (18–25 years) were distributed among three groups based on the method of orthodontic treatment. Group 1 included patients using braces, groups 2 and 3 included patients using aligners in which pressure was applied to 3–5 or 1–2 teeth, respectively. Brain activity electroencephalographic data were collected twice during neurophysiological monitoring: before and after orthodontic correction. The collected data sets included EEG signals from the occipital region of the brain. Numerical processing was performed based on continuous wavelet analysis to estimate the number and duration of oscillatory patterns in narrow frequency bands from 1 to 50 Hz. An assessment of the oscillatory brain activity demonstrated that different grades of correction intensity, regarding the dentition and occlusion, lead to uniform changes in the oscillatory patterns assessed by the electroencephalography in the occipital lobe. Comparison of the number of oscillatory patterns in the groups showed significant changes in the high-frequency Hz. The number of patterns in the -band increases when using the most intense bracket devices; while in cases of more gentle correction based on aligner systems, it remains unchanged or even decreases. The independent clustering procedure by assessing changes in oscillatory processes of -band occurring in a single occipital O1-canal made it possible to divide the data array into three clusters. The clusters of changes in brain activity correspond to clinical groups of patients. Thus, different types of dental exposure lead to significantly different changes in the brain activity of patients.
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