Computational analysis of dual numerical solutions for unsteady flow of Cu-water nanofluids with the Cattaneo–Christov heat model
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, The University of Haripur, 22620, Haripur, Pakistan
2 College of Engineering, Industrial Engineering Department, Umm Al-Qura University, Al-Khalidiya District, 28821, Al-Qunfudhah City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Riphah International University, Islamabad, Pakistan
Accepted: 3 March 2023
Published online: 5 April 2023
A prevalent area of research today for scientists and engineers is towards improving the thermal characteristics of working fluids and reducing energy consumption, which are essential in the industrial sector for things like heat exchangers and coolant for various electrical devices. Nanofluids with excellent thermal features are considered as a novel means of heat transfer enhancement in various technological processes. Accordingly, this article numerically explores the time-dependent flow characteristics of water-based copper nanofluids driven by shrinking geometry. Special attention is placed on the heat transport mechanism by utilizing the generalized Fourier law, popularized as the Cattaneo–Christov (C–C) heat model during flow subject to magnetic effects. Nanofluid transport is investigated using the single-phase Tiwari and Das model. The novelty of the current analysis is the determination of dual solutions for flow and thermal fields in the case of a shrinking surface. In addition, a two-dimensional set of governing equations is formulated using the C–C heat flux model and basic conservation laws. An efficient and versatile numerical method, the bvp4c function in MATLAB, is adopted to obtain the dual numerical solutions for specific values of key physical parameters. Moreover, the acquired numerical solutions are employed to generate flow profiles, like skin friction and Nusselt number to predict the critical values. The temperature distribution gets narrower when the thermal relaxation time parameter is extended. In addition, a comparative analysis between the C–C heat flow model and Fourier’s law is offered. The thermal distribution is decreased with the use of the C–C heat flow model. Additionally, the solid volumetric friction reduces the nanofluid velocity and augments the thermal distribution.
© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to EDP Sciences, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2023. Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.