Progress in the numerical studies of the type IIB matrix model
Physics Department, School of Applied Mathematical and Physical Sciences, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 15780, Zografou, GR, Greece
2 Institute for Fundamental Sciences, Setsunan University, 17-8 Ikeda Nakamachi, 17-8 Ikeda Nakamachi, 572-8508, Osaka, Japan
3 Theory Center, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, 305-0801, Ibaraki, Japan
4 Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126, Milano, Italy
5 National Institute of Technology, Tokuyama College, Gakuendai, Shunan, 745-8585, Yamaguchi, Japan
6 Department of Particle and Nuclear Physics, School of High Energy Accelerator Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, 305-0801, Ibaraki, Japan
7 Department of Physics, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, 422-8529, Shizuoka, Japan
Accepted: 25 April 2023
Published online: 30 May 2023
The type IIB matrix model, also known as the IKKT model, has been proposed as a promising candidate for a non-perturbative formulation of superstring theory. Based on this proposal, various attempts have been made to explain how our four-dimensional space-time can emerge dynamically from superstring theory. In this article, we review the progress in numerical studies on the type IIB matrix model. We particularly focus on the most recent results for the Euclidean and Lorentzian versions, which are obtained using the complex Langevin method to overcome the sign problem. We also review the earlier results obtained using conventional Monte Carlo methods and clarify the relationship among different calculations.
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