Universal dynamics and non-thermal fixed points in quantum fluids far from equilibrium
Kirchhoff-Institut für Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 227, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany
2 Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität, Philosophenweg 12, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany
Accepted: 23 August 2023
Published online: 12 September 2023
Closed quantum systems far from thermal equilibrium can show universal dynamics near attractor solutions, known as non-thermal fixed points, generically in the form of scaling behaviour in space and time. A systematic classification and comprehensive understanding of such scaling solutions are tasks of future developments in non-equilibrium quantum many-body theory. In this tutorial review, we outline several analytical approaches to non-thermal fixed points and summarise corresponding numerical and experimental results. The analytic methods include a non-perturbative kinetic theory derived within the two-particle irreducible effective action formalism, as well as a low-energy effective field theory framework. As one of the driving forces of this research field are numerical simulations, we summarise the main results of exemplary cases of universal dynamics in ultracold Bose gases. This encompasses quantum vortex ensembles in turbulent superfluids as well as recently observed real-time instanton solutions in one-dimensional spinor condensates.
© The Author(s) 2023
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