From Kadanoff-Baym dynamics to off-shell parton transport
Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Giessen, 35392 Giessen, Germany
Corresponding author: Wolfgang.Cassing@theo.physik.uni-giessen.de
The description of strongly interacting quantum fields is based on two-particle irreducible (2PI) approaches that allow for a consistent treatment of quantum systems out-of-equilibrium as well as in thermal equilibrium. As a theoretical test case the quantum time evolution of Φ4-field theory in 2+1 space-time dimensions is investigated numerically for out-of-equilibrium initial conditions on the basis of the Kadanoff-Baym-equations including the tadpole and sunset self energies. In particular we address the dynamics of the spectral (`off-shell') distributions of the excited quantum modes and the different phases in the approach to equilibrium described by Kubo-Martin-Schwinger relations for thermal equilibrium states. A detailed comparison of the full quantum dynamics to approximate schemes like that of a standard kinetic (on-shell) Boltzmann equation is performed. We find that far off-shell 1↔3 processes are responsible for chemical equilibration, which is not included in the Boltzmann limit. Furthermore, we derive generalized transport equations for the same theory in a first order gradient expansion in phase space thus explicitly retaining the off-shell dynamics as inherent in the time-dependent spectral functions. The solutions of these equations compare very well with the exact solutions of the full Kadanoff-Baym equations with respect to the occupation numbers of the individual modes, the spectral evolution as well as the chemical equilibration process. Furthermore, the proper equilibrium off-shell distribution is reached for large times contrary to the quasiparticle Boltzmann limit. We additionally present a direct comparison of the solution of the generalized transport equations in the Kadanoff-Baym (KB) and Botermans-Malfliet (BM) form; both solutions are found to agree very well with each other. The off-shell transport equation in the BM scheme allows for an explicit solution within an extended dynamical quasiparticle Ansatz. This leads to generalized equations of motion for dynamical quasiparticles that exceed the classical Hamilton equations and allow for the description of dynamical spectral functions. The dynamical quasiparticle model (DQPM) is used to extract partonic spectral functions from lattice QCD in the temperature range 0.8≤T/Tc ≤10. By consideration of time-like and space-like sectors of `observables' such as number densities, energy densities etc. mean-field potentials as well as effective interactions are extracted at different temperature T and quark chemical potentials μq. The latter determine the off-shell dynamics in the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics (PHSD) transport approach. Illustrative examples for off-shell dynamics in the hadron and parton sector are presented for e+e- production from nucleus-nucleus collisions from SIS to RHIC energies. The generalized transport approach, furthermore, qualifies for the description of hadronization without leading to the problem of entropy reduction as in conventional coalescence models.
© EDP Sciences, Springer-Verlag, 2009