Simulating thermohydrodynamics by finite difference solutions of the Boltzmann equation
Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil
The formulation of a consistent thermohydrodynamics with a discrete model of the Boltzmann equation requires the representation of the velocity moments up to the fourth order. Space-filling discrete sets of velocities with increasing accuracy were obtained using a systematic approach in accordance with a quadrature method based on prescribed abscissas (Philippi et al., Phys. Rev. E, 73 (5), n. 056702, 2006). These sets of velocities are suitable for collision-propagation schemes, where the discrete velocity and physical spaces are coupled and the Courant number is unitary. The space-filling requirement leads to sets of discrete velocities which can be large in thermal models. In this work, although the discrete sets of velocities are also obtained with a quadrature method based on prescribed abscissas, the lattices are not required to be space-filling. This leads to a reduced number of discrete velocities for the same approximation order but requires the use of an alternative numerical scheme. The use of finite difference schemes for the advection term in the continuous Boltzmann equation has shown to have some advantages with respect to the collision-propagation LBM method by freeing the Courant number from its unitary value and reducing the discretization error. In this work, a second order Runge-Kutta method was used for the simulation of the Sod's shock tube problem, the Couette flow and the Lid-driven cavity flow. Boundary conditions without velocity slip and temperature jumps were written for these discrete Boltzmann equation by splitting the velocity distribution function into an equilibrium and a non-equilibrium part. The equilibrium part was set using the local velocity and temperature at the wall and the non-equilibrium part by extrapolating the non-equilibrium moments to the wall sites.
© EDP Sciences, Springer-Verlag, 2009