Multiple ionization under strong XUV to X-ray radiation
1 Institute of Electronic Structure & Laser, FORTH, PO Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion, Greece
2 Department of Physics, University of Crete, PO Box 2208, 71003 Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Received: 8 June 2013
Revised: 9 August 2013
Published online: 23 October 2013
We review the main aspects of multiple photoionization processes in atoms exposed to intense, short wavelength radiation. The main focus is the theoretical framework for the description of such processes as well as the conditions under which direct multiphoton multiple ionization processes can dominate over the sequential ones. We discuss in detail the mechanisms available in different wavelength ranges from the infrared to the hard X-rays. The effect of field fluctuations, present at this stage in all SASE free-electron-laser (FEL) facilities, as well as the effect of the interaction volume integration, are also discussed.
© EDP Sciences, Springer-Verlag, 2013