The stability of nanobubbles
University of Sydney, Sydney New South Wales, Australia
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Received: 12 October 2010
Revised: 16 March 2013
Published online: 26 April 2013
The experimental evidence for the existence of nanobubbles is summarized. The paradox represented by their stability and the apparent contradiction with the Laplace-Young equation is discussed in detail. A review of surface thermodynamics is given, which shows that nanobubbles are only stable in water super-saturated with air, and also that the surface tension of the water-air interface decreases with increasing super-saturation. Computer simulation evidence for this reduction is reviewed. Experimental measurements showing the reduction in surface tension in the case of nanobubbles are given. The consequences of this novel physical phenomenon are discussed for nanobubbles, as well as more broadly.
© EDP Sciences, Springer-Verlag, 2014