Unexpected axial flow through hydrophilic tubes: Implications for energetics of water
Department of Bioengineering, Box 355061, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
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Received: 3 May 2011
Revised: 29 April 2013
Published online: 20 May 2013
We observed sustained axial flow through tubes immersed in water. The flow was spontaneous; i.e., no pressure gradient was applied. The tubes were made of hydrophilic materials: either the polymer Nafion, or a polyacrylic-acid gel in which a tunnel had been bored. Flow was monitored microscopically, with the aid of particles suspended in the water. The flow appears to be associated with recently discovered interfacial phase of water, which lines the insides of the tubes. This phase of water builds from electromagnetic energy absorbed by water from the surrounding environment . That absorbed energy may power the observed flow.
© EDP Sciences, Springer-Verlag, 2013