Generalized formulation of the interactions between soft spheres
1 School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
2 Institut de Physique de Rennes, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes, France
Received: 3 June 2014
Revised: 18 August 2014
Published online: 24 October 2014
The goal of this paper is to identify the most general formulation that consistently links the different degrees of freedom in a contact between spherical soft particles. These contact laws have two parts: a set of “generalized contact velocities” that characterize the relative motion of the two particles, and a set of “generalized contact forces” that characterize the interparticle forces. One well known constraint on contact models is that the contact velocities must be objective. This requirement fixes the number of linearly independent contact velocities. We also present a previously unnoticed (in this context) constraint, namely, that the velocities and forces must be related in such a way that the stiffness matrix is symmetric. This constraint also places restrictions on the coupling between the contact forces. Within our generalized contact model, we discuss the expression for rolling velocity that need to be used in the calculation of rolling resistance, and the risk or producing perpetual mobile when other expressions of rolling velocity are using instead.
© EDP Sciences, Springer-Verlag, 2014