A transfer entropy analysis of leader-follower interactions in flying bats
Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
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Received: 7 August 2015
Revised: 2 November 2015
Published online: 15 December 2015
In this paper, we present a transfer entropy analysis applied to the 3D paths of bats flying in pairs. The 3D trajectories are one-dimensionally characterized as inverse curvature time series to allow for entropy calculations. In addition to a traditional formulation of information flow between pair members, a path coupling hypothesis is pursued with time-delay modifications implemented in such a way as to not change the Markovianity of the process. With this modification, we find trends that suggest a leader-follower interaction between the front bat and the rear bat, although statistical significance is not reached due in part to the small number of pairs considered.
© EDP Sciences, Springer-Verlag, 2015