Sperm as microswimmers – navigation and sensing at the physical limit
Center of Advanced European Studies and Research (caesar), Department of Molecular Sensory Systems, Ludwig-Erhard-Allee 2, 53175 Bonn, Germany
a e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: 1 April 2016
Revised: 27 May 2016
Published online: 10 November 2016
Many cells and microorganisms have evolved a motility apparatus to explore their surroundings. For guidance, these biological microswimmers rely on physical and chemical cues that are transduced by cellular pathways into directed movement – a process called taxis. Only few biological microswimmers have been studied as detailed as sperm from sea urchins. Sperm and eggs are released into the seawater. To enhance the chances of fertilization, eggs release chemical factors – called chemoattractants – that establish a chemical gradient and, thereby, guide sperm to the egg. Sea urchin sperm constitute a unique model system for understanding cell navigation at every level: from molecules to cell behaviours. We will outline the chemotactic signalling pathway of sperm from the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata and discuss how signalling controls navigation in a chemical gradient. Finally, we discuss recent insights into sperm chemotaxis in three dimensions (3D).
© The Author(s) 2016
Open Access This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.