Pair spin–orbit interaction in low-dimensional electron systems
Fryazino Branch of the Kotelnikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics of Russian Academy of Sciences,
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Received in final form: 8 July 2019
Published online: 14 February 2020
The pair spin–orbit interaction (PSOI) is the spin–orbit component of the electron–electron interaction that originates from the Coulomb fields of the electrons. This relativistic component, which has been commonly assumed small in the low-energy approximation, appears large and very significant in materials with the strong SOI The PSOI, being determined by the spins and momenta of electrons, has highly unusual properties among which of most interest is the mutual attraction of the electrons in certain spin configurations. We review the nature of the PSOI in solids and its manifestations in low-dimensional systems that have been studied to date. The specific results depend on the configuration of the Coulomb fields in a particular structure. The main actual structures are considered: one-dimensional quantum wires and two-dimensional layers, both suspended and placed in various dielectric media, as well as in the presence of a metallic gate. We discuss the possible types of the two-electron bound states, the conditions of their formation, their spectra together with the spin and orbital structure. In a many-particle system, the PSOI breaks the spin-charge separation as a result of which spin and charge degrees of freedom are mixed in the collective excitations. At sufficiently strong PSOI, one of the collective modes softens. This signals of the instability, which eventually leads to the reconstruction of the homogeneous state of the system.
© EDP Sciences, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature, 2020