From Gargamelle to MINERvA: exploring the structure of the nucleon with neutrinos
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, 60510, Batavia, IL, USA
Accepted: 29 September 2021
Published online: 27 October 2021
Neutrino scattering experiments have been exploring the structure of the nucleon with Deep-Inelastic Scattering for over 50 years. Although hints of nucleon structure were available using CERN’s first neutrino beam in the 1960s, the study actually started quantitatively in the early 1970s with the Gargamelle heavy liquid bubble chamber that produced first neutrino confirmation of scaling. This study of nucleon structure continued with both bubble chambers and more massive electronic detectors that, with higher energy neutrino beams and reach, examined the breaking of this scaling while testing Quantum Chromodynamics. A significant factor when including neutrino explorations of nucleon structure in the overall picture is that to gather significant statistics, neutrino experiments have had to use heavier nuclear targets. It has been experimentally demonstrated that the structure of the nucleon in the nuclear environment is indeed different than the free nucleon structure. Understanding this modified structure has played an important part in the experimental and theoretical exploration of nucleon structure by neutrinos and is one of the important goals of the on-going MINERvA experiment at Fermilab.
© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to EDP Sciences, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2021