Dynamical demeanour of SARS-CoV-2 virus undergoing immune response mechanism in COVID-19 pandemic
Department of Mathematics, Diamond Harbour Women’s University, 743368, Sarisha, West Bengal, India
2 Department of Mathematics, K. L. S. College, Nawada, Magadh University, 805110, Bodh Gaya, Bihar, India
Accepted: 18 December 2021
Published online: 20 January 2022
COVID-19 is caused by the increase of SARS-CoV-2 viral load in the respiratory system. Epithelial cells in the human lower respiratory tract are the major target area of the SARS-CoV-2 viruses. To fight against the SARS-CoV-2 viral infection, innate and thereafter adaptive immune responses be activated which are stimulated by the infected epithelial cells. Strong immune response against the COVID-19 infection can lead to longer recovery time and less severe secondary complications. We proposed a target cell-limited mathematical model by considering a saturation term for SARS-CoV-2-infected epithelial cells loss reliant on infected cells level. The analytical findings reveal the conditions for which the system undergoes transcritical bifurcation and alternation of stability for the system around the steady states happens. Due to some external factors, while the viral reproduction rate exceeds its certain critical value, backward bifurcation and reinfection may take place and to inhibit these complicated epidemic states, host immune response, or immunopathology would play the essential role. Numerical simulation has been performed in support of the analytical findings.
© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to EDP Sciences, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2022