Hollow core, whispering gallery resonator sensors
Light-Matter Interactions Unit, OIST Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna-son, Okinawa 904-0495, Japan
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Received: 10 June 2014
Revised: 4 August 2014
Published online: 6 October 2014
A review of hollow core whispering gallery resonators (WGRs) is given. After a short introduction to the topic of whispering gallery resonators we provide a description of whispering gallery modes in hollow or liquid core WGRs. Next, whispering gallery mode (WGM) sensing mechanisms are outlined and some fabrication methods for microbubbles, microcapillaries and other tubular WGM devices are discussed. We then focus on the most common applications of hollow core WGRs, namely refractive index and temperature sensing, gas sensing, force sensing, biosensing, and lasing. The review highlights some of the key papers in this field and gives the reader a general overview of the current state-of-the-art.
© EDP Sciences, Springer-Verlag, 2014